Согласование времен в английском языке упражнения

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Комплекс упражнений по теме "Прямая и косвенная речь. Согласование времён"

Огородникова Е.В.

Комплекс упражнений по теме

«Прямая и косвенная речь. Согласование времён»

I ЧАСТЬ.  Теоретический материал.

1.1.

Прямая речь – это речь какого-либо лица, передаваемая буквально так, как она была произнесена.

She says: “I like reading science fiction most of all.” 

1.2.

Косвенная речь – это речь, в которой передаются не подлинные слова какого-либо лица, а их содержание.

She says that she likes reading science fiction most of all.

1.3.

Различные типы предложений в косвенной речи

тип предложения

прямая речь

косвенная речь

1.повествовательное (утвердительное предложение)

Mary said: “I like fantasy books most of all.”

Mary said that she liked fantasy books most of all.

2.общий вопрос

Lisa asked me: “Did you read any books by M. Twain?”

Lisa asked me if I had read any books by M. Twain.

(порядок слов после союза if  прямой: подлежащее, сказуемое, дополнение, обстоятельство)

3.специальный вопрос

Tom asked Nick: “Who is your favourite writer?”

Tom asked Nick who his favourite writer was.

(порядок слов после союза  прямой: подлежащее, сказуемое, дополнение, обстоятельство)

4.повелительное предложение (просьба, приказание, предложение и т.д.)

1) The teacher said: “Read this book!”

2) The teacher said: “Don’t talk at the lesson!”

1) The teacher said to read this book.

2) The teacher said not to talk at the lesson.

  • Повествовательное предложение становится придаточным предложением, которое присоединяется к главному предложению союзом that, который может опускаться.
  • Общий и альтернативный вопрос становится придаточным предложением, которое присоединяется союзом if (whether).
  • Специальный вопрос становится придаточным предложением, которое присоединяется тем вопросительным словом, с которого начинается вопрос в прямой речи.
  • Порядок слов в косвенном вопросе меняется на прямой: подлежащее, сказуемое, дополнение, обстоятельство.
  • Глагол в повелительном наклонении заменяется инфинитивом  (to+V1; not to + V1)

1.4.

Согласование времён – это согласование по времени сказуемых главного и придаточного предложений в сложноподчинённом предложении.

При обращении прямой речи в косвенную также применяется правило согласования времён.

1.5.

Правило согласования времён

  1. Если глагол в главном предложении (слова автора) употребляется в настоящем или будущем времени, то глагол в придаточном предложении употребляется в любом времени, необходимом по смыслу. (т.е. согласования времён нет)

                            he likes reading.

He says that       he liked reading.

     he will like reading.

  1. Если глагол в главном предложении (слова автора) употребляется в каком-либо из        прошедших времён, то глагол в придаточном предложении должен употребляться также в каком-либо из прошедших времён.

Прямая речь

Косвенная речь

Ann Smith: “I am a teacher. I work at school.”

Ann says that she is a teacher and works at school. (Present Simple)

Ann said that she was a teacher and worked at school. (Past Simple)

1.6.

Согласование времён в косвенной речи

Время в прямой речи

(требуемое по смыслу)

Время в косвенной речи

(фактически употребляемое)

Present Simple (V1; V+s (es))

Past Simple (V2; V+ed)

Present Progressive(am/ is/ are+V+ing)

Past Progressive (was /were +V+ ing)

Present Perfect (have/ has +V3)

Past Perfect (had + V3)

Present Perfect Progressive (have/ has been+V+ing)

Past Perfect Progressive (had been +V+ing)

Past Simple (V2; V+ed)

Past Perfect (had + V3)

Past Progressive (was /were + V+ing)

Past Perfect Progressive (had been +V+ing)

Past Perfect (had + V3)

Past Perfect (had + V3)

Future Simple (shall/ will +V1)

Future-in-the-Past (should/ would +V1)

1.7.

Изменение местоимений, наречий, модальных глаголов  при согласовании времён

Today – that day                                tonight – that night                        yesterday – the day before

Tomorrow – the next day                        (a week) ago – (a week) before                last (year – the (year) before

Next (year) – the following (year)                this – that                                now – then

These – those                                here - there                

Can – could                                                      must – had to                                may – might

Shall – should                                will – would

1.8.

Команды, просьбы, инструкции в косвенной речи

1. Tell / ask somebody + (not) + to+V1

Вместо tell / ask могут использоваться глаголы

  • command                                командовать
  • order                                приказывать
  • warn                                предупреждать
  • advise                                советовать
  • forbid (forbade, forbidden)          запрещать
  • invite                                приглашать

Mother asked Tom to help her.

She told us not to be late.

2. 1) suggest + V + ing

I suggested going to the cinema.

    2) suggest that somebody (should) + V1

I suggested that we should go to the cinema.

I suggested that we go to the cinema.

     Вместо глагола suggest могут использоваться глаголы

  • insist                                настаивать
  • recommend                        рекомендовать
  • demand                                требовать

II ЧАСТЬ.  Упражнения.

2.1.

Change the sentences into reported speech.

  1. My friend says: “I back the idea of introduction of a school uniform.”
  2. My friend asks me: “Do you support the idea of a school uniform?”
  3. My friend asks me: “What do you think about introduction of a school dress code?”
  4. The teacher said: “Write an essay about the problem of a school uniform.”
  5. The teacher said: “Don’t forget to hand in your essays.”

2.2.

Write the sentences in reported speech. Mind sequence of tenses!

1. The woman said to her son, "I am glad I am here." 2. Mike said, "We have bought these books today." 3. She said to me, "Now I can read your translation." 4. "This man spoke to me on the road," said the woman. 5. The teacher said to the class, "We shall discuss this subject tomorrow. 6.  Nellie said, "I read 'Jane Eyre' last year." 7. "You have not done your work well," said the teacher to me.

2.3.

Write the sentences in reported speech. Mind sequence of tenses!

1. She said, "I spent my holidays in the Crimea last year." 2. He said, "I am going to a health resort tomorrow." 3.  Ann said to us, "They haven't yet come." 4.  She said to us, "They arrived in St. Petersburg yesterday." 5.  Nick said, "I have never been to London. I think I shall go there next year." 6. He said, "They are leaving next Monday." 7. The clerk said to them, "You can leave the key with the maid upstairs."

2.4.

Write the following questions in reported speech.

  1. I said to Boris, "Does your friend live in London?" 2. I said to the man, "Are you living in a hotel?" 3. Nick said to his friend, "Will you stay at the Hilton?" 4. He said to me, "Do you often go to see your friends?" 5. She said to me, "Have you sent them a telegram?" 6. She said to me, "Did you send them a telegram yesterday?" 7.  I said to her, "Can you give me their address?" 8. I said to my mother, "Did anybody come to see me?" 9. Oleg said to me, "Will you come here tomorrow?" 10. He said to us, "Did you go to the museum this morning?"

2.5.

Write the following questions in reported speech.

1. I said to Nick, "Where are you going?" 2.  I said to him, "How long will it take you to get there?" 3.  He said to her, "Where do you usually spend your summer holidays?" 4. Ann said to Mike, "When did you leave London?" 5.  Boris said to them, "How can I get to the railway station?" 6.  Mary asked Tom, "What time will you come here tomorrow?" 7.  She asked me, "Why didn't you come here yesterday?" 8.  They said to him, "What time does the train start?" 9.  Mother said to me, "Who has brought this parcel?" 10.  I said to Becky, "What kind of book has your friend brought you?"

2.6.

Передайте следующие специальные вопросы в косвенной речи, начиная каждое предложение со слов, данных в скобках.

1. Where is he going? (He didn't tell anybody...). 2. Where does he live? (Nobody knew...) 3.  When will he come back? (She asked them...) 4. Where did she buy this hat? (He wanted to know...) 5. Where can I buy an English-Russian dictionary? (He asked me...) 6.  How long will it take your brother to get to Madrid? (He wondered...)

2.7.

Write the sentences in reported speech.

  1. She asked me: “Don’t close the window.”  2. They said to us: “Come at five o’clock tomorrow.”  3. The doctor advised to him: “You must spend your holidays in the south.”  4. My friend suggested to me: “I can bring you this book.”  5. Andy said: “I prefer CD books.”  6. Julia told: “We met Pete in the library yesterday.”  7. Jane wondered: “Who are you waiting here?”  8. Kate wanted to know: “Have you ever traveled abroad?”  9. Father said to us: “I’ll arrange everything for the trip next week.”  10. The boy told his mother: “I have been learning this poem for half an hour.”

     2.8.

Write the dialogues in reported speech.            

  1. Kate: There is nothing like getting up early in the morning and taking a cold shower!

Jane: How long have you been doing this?

Kate: I shall start tomorrow.

  1. The editor: Did you write the poem yourself?

The poet: Yes, every word of it.

The editor: I am glad to meet you, Sir Robert Burns. I thought you died many years ago.

  1. The critic: Which are two best novels of the year, Mr. Right?

Mr. Right: I don’t know yet. I have written only one this year.

       2.9.

      Write the dialogues in reported speech.

  1. Bill: I saw the doctor last week about my loss of memory.

Tom: What did he do?

Bill: He made me pay in advance.

  1. Teacher: Why are you late this morning, Jack?

Jack: I pressed the toothpaste so hard that it took me half an hour to get the paste back into the tube.

  1. The patient: Doctor, I have broken my arm.

Doctor: Don’t worry.

The patient: Will I be able to play the piano?

Doctor: Of course, you will.

The patient: Thank you. I have never been able to play the piano before.

2.10.

 Change into reported speech.

  1. “Laugh at all you trembled at before.” (William Cowper / advise)  2.  “Always do what you are afraid to do.” (Ralf Emerson / suggest)  3. “Never take anything for granted.” (Benjamin Disraeli / warn)  4. “Don’t worry about what may never happen. Keep in the sunlight.” (Benjamin Franklin / tell)  5. “Judge a man by his questions rather than his answers.” (Elbert Hubbard / insist)  6. “Never hold anyone by the button or the hand in order to be heard out … better hold your tongue than them.” (Philip Chesterfield / recommend)

2.11.

Put the verbs in brackets into the proper tense. Mind Sequence of tenses.

1. He said that our friends (come) here the following day.  2. When I came to his place, they (say) that he (go) off two hours before.  3. The teacher told us that the Sun (be) 1, 240, 000 miles from the Earth.  4. I did not know  that you already (receive) the letter.  5. I was told that the secretary just (go) out and (come) back in 20 minutes.  6. I did not know who (work) in the next room at that moment.  7. Mike said that he (work) in the bank.

2.12.

Translate into English. Mind Sequence of tenses.

  1. Они пообещали, что принесут нам все книги завтра.  2. Когда я позвонил ему домой, мне сказали, что он уехал час назад.  3. Я не знала, что он говорит по-французски.  4. Мы думали, что она права.  5. Майк сказал, что он играл в футбол на школьном стадионе весь вечер.  6. Она спросила меня, видела ли я Аню сегодня.  7. Он поинтересовался, что мы об этом думаем.  8. Мы бы хотели знать, когда начнутся соревнования.  9. Учитель спросил, сделали ли ученики домашнее задание.  10. Лиза хотела знать, перевела ли я эти тексты.

2.13.

Change the direct speech into the reported speech.

  1. – Is ink expensive, Dad?

- No, it isn’t. What makes you think so?

             - Mother seems quite disturbed because I spilt some on the carpet.

Susan asked her father… .  Susan’s father told her… .   Then the girl said … .

  1. – Mummy, why is it cold today?

- It is winter now. It’s always cold in winter

            - But why is it always cold in winter?

- Oh, Susan, I didn’t ask my mother so many questions.

- Now I understand why you can’t answer my questions!

Susan asked her mother… .  Her mother answered… .  Susan repeated the question … .

Susan’s mother got angry and exclaimed … . Susan came to the conclusion … .

2.14.

Retell the story using reported speech.   

“Take me back to prison”

      There was a king who thought that he could paint very well. His pictures were bad. But the people to whom he showed them were afraid of the king. They all said that they liked his pictures very much.

     One day the king showed his pictures to a great painter who lived in his country and said: “I want to know what you think of my pictures. Do you like them? Am I a good painter or not?”

      The painter looked at the king’s pictures and said: “My king, I think your pictures are bad, and that you will never be a good painter.” The king got very angry and sent the painter to prison.

      After two years the king wanted to see the painter again. “I was very angry with you,” he said, because you didn’t like my pictures. Now I forget all about it. You are a free man again, I am your friend.” For many hours the king talked with the painter, and even asked him to dine. After the dinner the king showed his pictures to the painter and asked: “Well, how do you like them now?”

     The painter did not answer anything. He turned to the soldier who was standing near him and said: “Take me back to prison.”

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Тексты грамот, тренировочные упражнения для отработки темы согласования времен

Тренировочные упражнения по теме                                 «Согласовае времен» 1 вариант

Execise 1. Передайте следующие специальные вопросы в косвенной речи.

 1. I said to my friend: «Where are you going?»

 2. I said to him: «How long are you going to stay there?»

 3. I said to him: «How long will it take you to get there?»

 4. Peter said to his friends: «Why are you looking at the picture?»

 5. He said to them: «Who will you see before you leave here?»

6. They said to him: «What time does the train start?»

7. The wife said to her son: «When did you leave London?»

 8. She said to her husband: «When will you be back home?»

 Exercise 2.  Переведите  в косвенную речь.

Начало формы


  1. "We sold our house 5 years ago", the stranger said.
    The stranger said that they .

  1. "I am leaving tomorrow", said the guest.
    The guest said that he .

  1. "Yes, I can see your point", said the judge.
    The judge said that he the point.

  1. "You are not right now", said his friend.
    His friend said that he was right .

  1. 5."He will be certainly happy when he gets the present", said mother.
    Mother said that he the present.

 Exercise 3. Определите, является ли предложение правильным (Correct) или неправильным (Wrong)

Начало формы


  1. He promised that he will visit us as soon as possible.

  1. I said that I did it many times before.

  1. She said that she had already been to England three times.

  1. We thought that we would stay there a little bit longer.

  1. They asked us if we could give them a lift to the hotel.

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Лекция. СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ SEQUENCE OF TENSES

СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

  1. Правила согласования времен.
  2. Случаи несоблюдения правил согласования
  3. Упражнения на закрепление темы.
  1. Правила согласования времен.

Характерная особенность английского языка заключается в так называемом согласовании времён: время глагола придаточного предложения зависит от времени главного предложения.

Правило согласования времён представляет особую трудность, когда сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в одной из форм прошедшего времени.

В этом случае в придаточных предложениях не могут употребляться формы настоящего и будущего времени глаголов, хотя речь идёт о действиях, которые совершаются в настоящем или будут совершаться в будущем.

Если глагол в главном предложении стоит в одном из прошедших времен, то и глагол придаточного предложения должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен.

В таких случаях правило согласования времен допускает три основных варианта:

  • Если действие в придаточном предложении происходит одновременно с действием в главном предложении, то нужно использовать Past Simple или Past Continuous:

They told us, “We are going to the library.”

Они сказали нам : «Мы идем в библиотеку».

They told us they were going to the library.

Они сказали нам, что идут в библиотеку.

  • Если действие в придаточном предложении предшествует действию в главном предложении, то глагол в придаточном используется в Past Perfect или Past Perfect Continuous:

We were told, “It was raining a lot.”

Нам сказали: «Было много дождей».

We were told that it had been raining a lot.

Нам сказали, что было много дождей.

  • Если действие в придаточном предложении следует после действия в главном, то нужно использовать одно из времен Future-in the-Past:

She said: “I will try to get the highest mark on the exam.”

Она сказала: «Я постараюсь заработать на экзамене лучшую оценку».

She said she would try to get the highest mark on the exam.

Она сказала, что постарается заработать на экзамене лучшую оценку.

Таблица согласования времен в английском языке

Время в прямой речи

Present Indefinite

Present Continuous

Рresent Perfect

Раst Indefinite

Раst Perfect

Future Indefinite

Время в косвенной речи

Past Indefinite

Past Соntinuous

Раst Pеrfect

Рast Perfect

Past Perfect

Future Indefinite in the Раst

  1. Случаи несоблюдения правил согласования

В каких случаях не соблюдают правила согласования времен в английском языке?

Если вы столкнетесь с ниже перечисленными условиями, вы можете не соблюдать правила согласования времен в английском языке.

  1. В придаточном предложении говорится о всемирно известной истине или факте:

The pupils were told that the Earht moves around the Sun. — Ученикам сказали, что Земля вращается вокруг Солнца.

  1. В придаточном предложении есть модальный глагол must, should, ought to:

I said that I must meet her. – Я сказал, что мне надо встретить ее.

  1. Если говорящий ссылается на слова, которые только что были сказаны:

Kate: Stay with me, Mark. I will cook something delicious. – Кейт: Останься со мной, Марк. Я приготовлю что-нибудь вкусное.

Mark to Elza: Kate said she will cook something delicious. – Марк Эльзе: Кейт сказала, что приготовит что-то вкусное.

  1. В придаточном предложении, вводимом союзами when / since, простое прошедшее время (Past Simple) не изменяет своей формы:

I answered that I hadn’t met her since we moved. – Я ответил, что не видел ее после того, как мы переехали.

  1. Если в придаточном предложении прошедшее длительное время (Past Continuous), то оно тоже не меняется:

Steve said that when he came home his father was watching TV. – Стив сказал, что, когда он пришел домой, его отец смотрел телевизор.

3.Упражнения на закрепление темы.

Выберите правильный вариант

Задание 1.

Greg said that ... a new job.

  1. he will need
  2. he needed
  3. would he need

Задание 2.

Tim complained that he ... at four o’clock in the morning.

  1. is working
  2. will be working
  3. was working

Задание 3.

He said that he ... that film.

  1. had already seen
  2. has already seen
  3. was seen

Задание 4.

Anna explained to me that the hairdresser’s ... down the road.

  1. is located
  2. was located
  3. locates

Задание 5.

Charles said that he ... me the following day.

  1. would have called
  2. will call
  3. would call

Задание 6.

Bill asked me what ... for dinner the day before.

  1. I have made
  2. I had made
  3. had I made

Задание 7.

He said that If I ... Kathrin, she ... me.

  1. ask / will help
  2. have asked / would help
  3. asked / would help

Задание 8.

I was worried if ... enough space to buy a new TV set to my room.

  1. I would have
  2. would I have
  3. I will have

Задание 9.

Alex wondered if ... for the weekend at his place.

  1. his sister will stay
  2. his sister was going to stay
  3. his sister is going to stay

Задание 10.

I wasn’t sure if my purchases ... or not and I didn’t know whom to ask about it.

  1. delivered
  2. had been delivered
  3. will be delivered

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